Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Strikes of the 70s and 80s: The Invisible Role of Women Essay

Strikes of the 70's and 80's: The Invisible Role of Women Throughout history women have slowly moved from the role of mother and housewife into the labor force. In the middle of this rise in stature is a relatively unknown set of events that helped women gain the self-respect and individual attitude needed to move up in the work force. Women's participation in strikes during the 1970's and 80's is relatively unknown in U.S. history. Although the women involved in these strikes made a big impact on the strike and its outcome, they go widely unrecognized and uncredited for their roles. This paper will focus on three strikes: the Brookside Coal Strike, the Phelps-Dodge Copper Strike, and the Pittston Coal Strike. Each of these strikes has its own individual history and story, but they have many things in common as well. Most importantly, each strike had women participants who greatly impacted the strike and did a small part to help women move towards a place in the labor force. Each of the three strikes will be examined from the standpoint of five main factors. First, what were the roles of women in the strike? What kind of work were they involved in? Second, what interest did the women have in the strike? Third, what kind of relationship did the union have with the women? Did it impair their efforts or support them? Fourth, how did the women ultimately impact the strike? Were they seen as a positive influence? In addition, were they seen as positive by the media or ignored by them? And lastly, what happened after the strike? Did the women continue their new, politically active roles or did they go back to the lives they lived before the strike? Each of these questions will be addressed for each of the three strikes discussed... ...rt of something much bigger that would eventually lead to women as an integral part of the labor force. Works Cited Aulette, Judy and Mills, Trudy. "Something Old, Something New: Auxiliary Work in the 1983-1986 Copper Strike." Feminist Studies 14.2 (1988): 251-268. Beckwith, Karen. "Collective Identities of Class and Gender: Working-Class Women in the Pittston Coal Strike." Political Psychology 19.1 (1998): 147-167. Birecree, Adrienne M. "The Importance and Implications of Women's Participation in the 1989-90 Pittston Coal Strike." Journal of Economic Issues March 1996: 187-210. Lasky, Marjorie Penn. Women, Work and Protest: A Century of U.S. Women's Labor History. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985. Maggard, Sally Ward. "Women's Participation in the Brookside Coal Strike: Militance, Class, and Gender in Appalachia." Frontiers 3 (1987): 16-21.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Animation

Research Hameed Khan Topic: Animation: A way of introducing literature and moral values to children at adolescence by comparing William Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet’ and ‘The Lion King’ Animation Long Term Paper on ‘Preparing a Research Proposal ’ Title: Animation: A way of introducing literature and moral values to children at adolescence by comparing William Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet’ and ‘The Lion King’ Animation . There is no doubt that today's entertainment has lost most of its touch with the more classical influences of its predecessors.However, in mid-1994, Walt Disney Pictures released what could arguably be the best animated feature of all time in The Lion King. With a moral base unlike most of the movies released at the time, The Lion King placed a children's facade on a very serious story of responsibility and revenge. However, this theme is one of the oldest in history, and it is not the least apparent in one of the oldest works of literature by The Bard himself, William Shakespeare.The work that Disney's The Lion King parallels is none other than Hamlet: Prince of Denmark and the film shadows this work so closely, that parallels between the main characters themselves are wildly apparent. This very close comparison has led critics â€Å"to compare the movie to Hamlet in the importance of its themes†. But with a closer inspection of the characters themselves do we see just how apparent these similarities are.The movie addresses in one way or another all of the important contemporary dilemmas: bravery, responsibility, vulnerability, preparedness, stewardship, faith, science, the importance of history, family and the environment. In these days of personal uncertainty and political cynicism, The Lion King provides clear moral guidance wrapped up in an entertaining and wholesome shell. Introduction: In The Lion King, the role of the young prince whose father is murdered is played by a cub named Simba, whose naivety procures him more than his fair share of hardships and troubles.By the acts in the story alone, one can see that Simba is a direct representation of Shakespeare's Hamlet Jr. , but not only that, each of them shares similar actions in the play. Interpretations if Simba's actions are as profound as Hamlet's, particularly of why Hamlet delayed in exacting vengeance for his father's death (Harrison 236). Both Simba and Hamlet Jr. â€Å"delay† their action of retribution for their respective father's deaths. The loss of their paternal companion leaves Hamlet incredibly melancholy and Simba without a royal teacher and father during his tender years.Each of them runs from their responsibility, although inside themselves they know what must be done: Hamlet attempts to validate his suspicions while Simba hides from his past. However, some have attempted to theorize that Hamlet's delay is due to his mental instability, his madness over the death of h is father. Eliot refutes this, calling the characterization â€Å"a simple ruse, and to the end, we may assume, understood as a ruse to the audience† .Simba exhibits this same behavior, venting his feelings in mournful retaliation against responsibility, most notably when his childhood friend Nala attempts to persuade him to return to the Pride Lands. This delay between our characters adds a more haunting effect between the two works. It's surprising that today's audiences can be so moved by themes that were first implemented in literature almost four hundred years before. Similarly, the characters of Hamlet Sr. and Mufasa bear a striking resemblance to one another, not only in their actions, but their meanings as well.Hamlet Sr. , the once king of Denmark, ruled his kingdom in peace and prosperity, evident in the conversations in Act I, Scene I between Marcellus and Horatio about the creations of implements of war in Denmark under the new king, Claudius. Mufasa, too, ruled p eacefully over the Pride Lands, only worrying about his son and his responsibilities. But, after their deaths, they each become more than the kings they once were. They become the heralds for their sons, compelling them to avenge their deaths and take responsibility for what their uncles have done. Each deceased king pproaches his son in the same way: via an apparition that gives a direct, if not opaque, monologue driving their princes to action and each ghost leaves the interpretation of their messages open to their sons. Neither Hamlet Sr. nor Mufasa tell their respective sons directly to destroy their murderers, although Hamlet Sr. does name the perpetrator directly, it is Hamlet that decides that action must be taken. It is this direct allusion of one major character with an integral part in advancing the work to another that helps solidify Shakespeare's influence as a writer of great literature.But it isn't just the protagonists that allude to one another; the villains in both The Lion King and Hamlet can be directly and similarly compared to one another. Both Scar, from The Lion King and Claudius, from Hamlet, are brothers of the king, murder their sibling to usurp the throne, and take their brother's wife as their queen (There is no direct proof of this conjecture for Scar, but since Scar calls upon Sarabi, the former mate of King Mufasa, in The Lion King to report on the status of the Pride Lands, it stands to reason that she is Queen of Pride Rock. . It is not so much the characterizations of the characters in this instance than the actions that provide proof of how Shakespearean literature invokes writers today. Claudius, at first, appears satisfied by his deeds, enjoying the life of a king, parading around to view his belongings, wedding his own brother's wife, and holding banquets in his own honor, all the while preparing for war with a neighboring Scandinavian country.Scar revels in his ill-gotten spoils as well, allowing his hyannic henchmen to h unt the Pride Lands to practical defoliation while he reclines in the pride's cave, tormenting his majordomo Zazu and eating more than his fair share of the kills. Scar, like Claudius, grossly exploits his new-found power and drives his kingdom into war. But here is where the similarity begins to diverge. In Hamlet, we see Claudius repenting for his sins against his brother, repealing the fact that he committed that heinous deed and begging forgiveness from his Lord.Scar, on the other hand, never once doubts his actions, and goes with them to their final conclusion. Scar even goes as far as to taunt the prince, Simba, has he hangs of the precipice of Pride Rock: â€Å"And now here's my little secret. I killed Mufasa! † One could argue that the act of confessing to the crimes is an additional parallel between the characters, but their motives for doing so are not alike. Claudius is making an attempt to repent for the sin cast upon his soul, while Scar is bawdily declaring his cleverness over his kind-hearted yet naive brother.With the major characters in both works aside, the similarities between secondary characters in The Lion King and Hamlet are still quite striking. The insight of one work in another is so deep that The Lion King goes as far to allude Hamlet's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern with Timon and Pumbaa. A comparison here, if not the greatest comparison, is the fact that both pairs of characters in both works are provided as relief from the main focus of the stories.Timon and Pumbaa provide a welcome resort from his responsibilities and hauntings of his past by introducing him to the carefree life of â€Å"Hakuna Matata†, while Rosencrantz and Guildenstern allow the audience to know that Prince Hamlet does enjoy a life outside of the royal house, mingling with fellow scholars-to-be and friends. However, Hamlet's friends are charged by his nemesis, Claudius, to bring Hamlet before the King on numerous occasions. There is no direct eviden ce that Timon and Pumbaa are in the employment of Scar, nevertheless, the sidekick pair in The Lion King provide a very similar function, whether they realize it or not.Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are a constant reminder to Hamlet about the revenge that must be exacted upon Claudius by being messengers to the mournful prince whenever Claudius needs them to be. By locating Hamlet and announcing that the king wishes to have court with him, they play an important role in the foreward progress of the play, and the downward spiral of Hamlet's sadness. Timon and Pumbaa, similarly, at one time attempt to procure their leonine friend's past from his memory. Simba falters, at first, his carefree life shattered by the memories of what brought him to the jungle in the first place.But when he finally gives in and tells them when his own father entrusted him too, Timon and Pumbaa laugh uproariously, disbelieving what they hear. But it is this jogging of Simba's memory at the prodding of Timon a nd Pumbaa that moves the story onward, and brings Simba's melancholy back to him. And when the past finally becomes fully clear to Timon and Pumbaa with the arrival of the lioness Nala, they not only attempt to bring Simba to his senses in their own blunt, of not comical, way, they attempt to confront him and make him face his past.They fail in this, but they still bring to Simba's mind the events in his childhood, and the pain that it brought to him. Although Timon and Pumbaa had no intention of doing so, they performed the same act of reminding the main character of their responsibility to their father, and to their kingdoms that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern did to Hamlet Jr. Another secondary character to the protagonist and antagonist are the respective queens of each work, Sarabi from The Lion King and Gertrude from Hamlet: Prince of Denmark.Each of them are nearly complete mirror images of one another, each having the same place in the social hierarchy, equal amounts of power over their kingdoms, and emotional ties to the main protagonists of the stories. Sarabi is the Queen of Pride Rock, leader of the lionesses since the reign of King Mufasa. Although she is not the reason Scar usurped the throne from his brother, it is a near certainty that she has stayed on as Queen because she is quite adept at her duties. Gertrude, likewise, is adept at her duties as well, although they take on a quite different task than Sarabi.She is mainly for show, for Claudius to own and adorn with his newly gotten wealth. Both Sarabi and Gertrude are Queens, but both show little or no power over their subjects. Sarabi is nearly killed by Scar when she dares to question one of his decisions, which shows the place of the lionesses in the pride: pawns in Scar's quest for power. Any deviation from being simple huntresses results in pain, and perhaps death at the paws of Scar and his multitude of hyenas. Gertrude, too, never appears to order anyone, although she certainly has the capacity to do so.She instead plays the weakened queen, doing as her husband bids her and plaintively bending to Claudius's will. But even though these similarities are surprisingly close for non-primary characters, it is their emotional connection to their sons that spurns the stories along. Gertrude's marriage to Claudius enrages Hamlet to no end, driving him more and more out of his delay to act upon his father's death. It is her willing forgetfulness of her former husband that pushes Hamlet to the brink, their emotional bond that pains them both to ends that he must act on, and she tries deeply to hide.Sarabi, too, has such an effect on her son Simba. When Nala finds Simba, and realizes that he is not dead, as Scar had said, she is enthralled and wonders aloud about the feelings of his mother. This has a noticeable affect on Simba. He recoils, the responsibility that he believes is his is once again thrust upon him, and the thought of his mother's feelings towards his past deeds sends him further into sadness, furthering the story. And when Simba does return to Pride Rock, he is enraged when he sees how Scar is treating his mother, just as Hamlet is enraged at how Claudius treats his mother as well.In a way, it is the queen in each work that adds to the deep melancholy of the main characters and drives them to action. This movie both reflects and shapes our cultural consciousness about contemporary social and political change, speaking forcefully to the question of who should hold power and how people should acquire it. The movie reinforces hierarchy, especially primogeniture, in nearly all of its 26 scenes, either through what the characters say, how they are displayed, or both.The message presented at every turn is that we are better off with our traditional leadership, that those individuals are both wise and benevolent, protecting the health and welfare of all members of the group, even the most vulnerable. At the same time, the movie attacks those out side the traditional group of leaders who rise to power â€Å"illegitimately,† showing us how they are inherently unfit to hold positions of authority and can bring disaster down upon all of us.The Lion King, even though it is an American movie, does not promote what we might have come to think of as â€Å"American† values, those which support meritocracy and democracy. Finally, the movie reinforces the submissive and passive role of the citizen. At a time when we might consider democracy to be challenged, The Lion King doesn't make a strong case for inclusion, diversity and broader political participation. In fact, it does just the opposite, arguing essentially from an aristocratic position for the return to old-fashioned values and maintenance of the status quo.Purpose of Study: The main agenda behind doing this research is to highlight the fact that modern entertainment media is a very powerful source to teach literature and moral values to students when they are at a turning point in life. The time when they learn what life is all about. Although much of modern entertainment may look like new entertainment on the surface, if we probe deeply enough, we can find connections to some of the greatest literature of all time.Shakespeare is probably one of the most influential writers of all time, if not all time, and his greatest works, not limited to Hamlet: Prince of Denmark, are the basis of many stories written today. His plays are continuously redone and reperformed, his sonnets quoted in many a song and story, his histories the basis of many school lessons, and his influences are more than profound in many cases, and in the case of The Lion King, those influences are the basis of the story, not only of the main protagonist and antagonist, but of secondary characters as well.All these Dramas, Poetry and Stories do impart Value education to children in many ways. I intend to research on to what extent does entertainment is of any use in teaching literature to students looking forward to take literature as a subject for specialization and of be any use to keep the moral values of these students intact? Review of Literature: There has been research on comparison between literature and Animation earlier. But my research mainly deals with the factor that had been left untouched yet, that both Hamlet and The Lion King show similarities in plot and characterization.The cinematic adaptation appeals to the children as well as the adults. Whereas Hamlet only circles around literature students. Doing a complete analysis of the film adaptation gives us a detailed structure of what amount of principles and beliefs that influence the behavior and way of life of the future generation can be extracted from this modern media of value education through entertainment and detailed knowledge of how literature can be thought to students at pre-graduation level. * Hierarchy and LegitimacyScene 1 of the movie depicts all the animals on the Afric an savannah gathering to pay tribute to the new heir, Simba. The lyrics of â€Å"The Circle of Life† present life as overwhelming, explaining why we need our traditional leaders: â€Å"There's more to see than can ever be seen/More to do than can ever be done. . . . /It's the Circle of Life/And it moves us all/Through despair and hope/Through faith and love/Till we find our place/On the path unwinding. † One by one, the critical characters are introduced and their â€Å"places† are identified. Mufasa, the ajestic patriarch, watches from the point of Pride Rock while his loyal subjects gather below for the presentation of his new-born son. Zazu, the horn-bill, appears first and clarifies his role, first as the most-loyal subject by bowing low, and then as Mufasa's trusted advisor, allowing him unusual familiarity with the king, although he always refers to him as â€Å"sire. † While the assembled zebras part and bow down, making a path for Rafiki, the old shaman, he is embraced by Mufasa, treated with the deference and respect usually accorded a society's senior priests.His first action is to anoint the young Simba, to validate him as the heir apparent, and to present him to the crowd assembled below. As in many of the scenes in The Lion King, the music and visuals carry messages as important as the dialogue. In this first scene, for example, there is no conversation. Instead the message of class difference is conveyed through the different levels on which characters appear. Throughout the movie, those with power appear above those who are powerless; for example, the most powerful characters are usually up on ledges, and those who are vulnerable are down on the valley floor.Mufasa gazes down upon the mass of animals gathering below him; Pride Rock, his â€Å"throne,† is the highest point in the Pride Lands. Camera angle also tells us about power relationships, close-up for those in power, panoramas and long shots for the mass of undifferentiated animals who have no status. The change in the complexity of the musical arrangement, the drop from a full orchestral arrangement, in which there is little differentiation between instruments, to a instrumental solo as the scene moves from the group of subjects to the single important character, identifies to whom we should shift our attention.In this first scene, lest the youngest among us miss all these clues, Simba is highlighted by a sunbeam as Rafiki holds him up before the mass of animals, who then, cued by this natural sign of individuation, howl and stamp their feet in approval and bow down in a mass display of obeisance. The problems of hierarchy, legitimacy, and power are explored in Scene 2 in which Scar is introduced. His first line, and ironically the first piece of dialogue, may be thought of as a basic premise of the movie: â€Å"Life's not fair, is it? (Much of what currently upsets conservatives are attempts to achieve social, political and econo mic â€Å"fairness† by such legislative means as affirmative action, guaranteed health insurance, easier voter registration, the minimum wage, and a host of additional government regulations. ) The scene explores the sources of â€Å"unfairness:† differences in physical size or strength, differences in lineage or position, and differences in cleverness or intelligence. Obviously, the mouse is vulnerable in this scene because he is small, but he is saved by a Zazu whose power derives initially from his ability to distract Scar.When Zazu is threatened in turn, he is rescued by Mufasa, who just orders Scar to drop the bird. Mufasa's authority comes from his position as king, which Scar questions by not attending Simba's presentation, but his power comes, according to Scar, from â€Å"Brute Strength. † Scar's power, by his own admission, derives from his â€Å"brains. † Some critics have argued that Scar's accent, tone of voice, appearance, movement and word choice (â€Å"curtsy,† â€Å"shallow end of the gene pool†) suggest that he is homosexual, and that his role as supreme villain attests to powerful strains of homophobia in our cultural consciousness.Those who have focused on these features of his characterization point out that Scar rises to power through unnatural means, including deceit and fratricide, and that his â€Å"administration† results in the near-destruction of the Pride Lands and the potential extinction or exile of all the animals. They also point to Zazu's sympathetic comment to Mufasa that â€Å"there's one in every family,† and lambaste his (albeit mocking) suggestion that Scar be reduced to a useless ornament (â€Å"a handsome throw rug†) which would permit Mufasa to â€Å"take him out and beat him . . . henever he gets dirty. † Some viewers have argued that this interpretation resides â€Å"in the eye of the beholder† and not â€Å"in the movie,† but cultura l critics would point out that texts reflect as well as shape our cultural consciousness and can invoke an audience as well as address one already identified. Adding another dimension to the question of legitimacy, it is curious that although they are brothers, Mufasa speaks with an American accent and Scar's is clearly identifiable as British (hence â€Å"illegitimate† or â€Å"foreign† in contemporary American society). The Role of Nature Scene 3 follows to remind us that Simba is the legitimate heir by virtue of his class and lineage, that he has been presented to his subjects and then anointed in a public ceremony, with the event now recorded for posterity in a cave painting (the movie's version of a public record or historical document). What follows (in Scene 4) is another argument for hierarchy and patriarchy, this time derived from nature.In this father-son encounter (Sarabi recedes into the background here; women clearly are secondary yet numerous, generally u nnamed, and lacking influence in this culture), Mufasa explains how what they â€Å"own† is defined and measured by natural processes (â€Å"Everything the light touches is our kingdom. † â€Å"A king's time as ruler rises and falls like the sun. â€Å"). Just as we can infer from Scene 2 that illegitimate power is unnatural, so we learn here that legitimate power is organic, harmonious, predictable and regular, attuned with the natural order of birth and death and based on respect for all species.The succession, to occur in some distant future, is already determined, and in this father-son colloquy, Mufasa emphasizes the orderliness of it all. The movie makes use of our cultural knowledge of nature. There are numerous references to being higher or lower on the food chain, and selection of animals and their characterizations make use of the actual qualities of the animals. The warthog, for example, is an ugly African pig that usually travels in small family groups (m uch like the trio of Pumbaa, Timon and Simba). They are indiscriminate eaters and often use the burrows created by other animals.Hyenas, in addition to having a weird howl, are scavengers, feeding on the carrion left behind by other animals. Even the weather in this movie reflects what is going on in the plot: clouds stream across the sky when conflict threatens, the winds of change blow when the plot turns, and the sunrises and sunsets flash by in rapid succession to signal the passage of time. The movie also depends on our knowledge of human development, especially the behavior of the young. The jaunty â€Å"I Just Can't Wait to Be King† (Scene 7) shows just how immature and incomplete the young Simba's understanding of the responsibilities of leadership is.To him, preparation for kingship is limited to â€Å"brushing up on looking down† and â€Å"working on his ROAR,† and the primary benefits of the job are being able to ignore orders from others, being free to â€Å"run around all day† and â€Å"do it all his way. † Coupled with â€Å"Hakuna Matata† (Scene 14), another bouncy carpe diem number that emphasizes just how alienated from work and his adult responsibilities Simba has become as he drifts around the African plains with Pumbaa and Timon, we can see how unsuited Simba is for the role of king.Even Nala recognizes (in Scene 20) that the older Simba is somehow less mature than she expected he would be, and yet she falls in love with him anyway, restoring â€Å"the perfect harmony† alluded to in the lovely ballad, â€Å"Can You Feel the Love Tonight? † While a psychological interpretation of the movie would move through these scenes, showing how Simba eventually comes to take his leadership responsibilities more seriously, a cultural analysis finds them more problematic, for these are the songs we hum as we leave the theater and the lyrics we sing under our breath without thinking about the values they promote.The context may be ironic in the movie, but we forget that quickly enough. * The Importance of Borders In Scene 4, Mufasa carefully explains to his son that there is land beyond their authority, an area to the north that Simba calls â€Å"the shadowy place,† and one role of the king is to make sure the borders are not breached. The Pride Lands are economically healthy and ecologically sound in part because the scavenging hyenas (â€Å"those slobbering, mangy, stupid poachers†) are excluded, relegated to the colorless Elephant Graveyard where there is neither sufficient food nor water to sustain them.When they take over the Pride Lands in league with Scar, they destroy the â€Å"balance of nature† and the land withers; their presence nearly destroys the entire society. Some critics have suggested that selecting Whoopi Goldberg, Cheech Marin, and Jim Cummings as the voices of Shenzi, Banzai, and Ed, the three speaking hyenas, reflects a variety of rac ist and ethnic biases; Mark Leeper notes, â€Å"Outwardly the film has a love of African rhythms and language and yearns for a united world–everyone but hyenas united.But the core is just a bit ugly and scary. † The Pride Lands has, in effect, its own Proposition. While its borders are not impermeable, the hyenas are prevented from any role but that of scavenger. Perhaps Scene 10 (‘Be Prepared') presents the most troubling picture of the hyenas and their pact with Scar. Set in the hyena cave where it is dark and gray, the scene opens with Shenzi, Banzai, and Ed licking their wounds (both figuratively and literally) after Mufasa has saved Simba from their clutches in the Elephant Graveyard.They clearly are out of control: Ed is laughing hysterically and chewing on his own back leg, unaware that it is his own, and Banzai and Shenzi are castigating lions in general and boosting their own morale in the process. They are momentarily startled when Scar appears, but unl ike Mufasa, he presents no threat to them because he has no real power. Indeed, during this scene he reveals to the hyenas and to the viewers his general plan to kill Mufasa and Simba and assume the throne himself. The song's refrain â€Å"Be Prepared! ironically echoes the Boy Scout motto as hundreds of hyenas, singing â€Å"in tight, crisp phrasing and enunciation,† goose-step past in tight military formation, fires casting their eerie shadows against the walls of the cave and a crescent moon (looking at first like a hammer and sickle) appearing high above the cavern walls. Obviously Scar views the hyenas as â€Å"thick,† â€Å"crude and unspeakably plain,† with deficient â€Å"powers of retention† and â€Å"vacant expressions,† yet he promises them that if they support him in his efforts to wrest power from Mufasa, they will â€Å"never go hungry again. Scar has contempt for his accomplices, even while he enlists their aid. Contrasting these m iscreants with the wise, patient patriarch stacks the deck. * Religion Not surprisingly, The Lion King makes use of many religious images and echoes, affirming faith and folklore while rejecting science. Beginning with the baptism of Simba in the opening scene, the movie is full of familiar rituals. In Scene 9, for example, just after Mufasa has chastised Simba for disobeying him, he explains the mystery of the stars to his son: â€Å"The great kings of the past look down on us from those stars. . . Just remember that those kings will always be there to guide you. And so will I. † Indeed, Simba repeats this explanation to Timon and Pumbaa at the end of Scene 16 (although Timon translates it into â€Å"You mean a bunch of royal dead guys are watching us? † and dismisses Simba's explanation in favor of his own, that the stars are fireflies â€Å"stuck up on that big bluish-black thing. â€Å"), although he is troubled by the memories of his father's promise. After Nala finds Simba and urges him to return to save the Pride from sure destruction, Simba bitterly addresses the stars and his father, â€Å"You said you'd always be there for me. This crisis of faith, in Scene 20, continues until Rafiki forces him to look in the pool where he sees the face of Mufasa emerge from the clouds. Mufasa says sadly, â€Å"Simba. You have forgotten me. † When Simba cries that he is not who he used to be, Mufasa admonishes him, â€Å"You are my son, the true king. † Finally, after Simba vanquishes Scar and the Pride Lands are consumed by fire and then cleansed by the rains, Mufasa appears again in the heavens with a single word, â€Å"Remember. In fact, Simba has become the savior, restoring the Pride Lands and saving the lives of the animals. Even Christianity seems to support the restoration of â€Å"The Circle of Life. † * Conclusion Of course, this is not the way an allegory of the modern egalitarian and inclusive society should conclude . The story should end, as Scar implies it will in Scene 12, with the lions and hyenas coming together â€Å"in a great and glorious future,† one in which everyone has enough to eat, a role to play, and an equal say in the governance of the Pride.In the new society, the border between the Pride Lands and the Elephant Graveyard would disappear, the hyenas would be transformed into productive members of a global society, contributing their efforts in promoting the welfare of the whole group, and Scar would learn how to be a wise leader, making sure that no one was taxed beyond his or her ability or left needy. Future leaders would emerge from the Pride based on merit, not birth. Some readers will object to this analysis, arguing that The Lion King is a children's movie after all and shouldn't be interpreted as speaking to adult issues.But what is a children's movie, if not one that transmits the dominant values of the culture to young children in an entertaining manner, while a t the same time confirming those values for adults. This movie addresses an important social issue that affects children, in their schools, churches, parks and neighborhoods. Unfortunately, it suggests that excluding people because their appearance or their heritage or their habits differ from those of the people in power is an acceptable social and political policy, one supported by tradition, history, and religion.The Lion King sugar-coats a bitter and powerful message about patriarchy, legitimacy and hierarchy. Hypothesis: On the basis of this detailed analysis, my hypothesis is that The Lion King is a shadowed representation of Hamlet, taking what is presentable to the young minds but enough to interest students into literature. The conclusion I drew out of it is that entertainment is not mere enjoyment but a very powerful and effective media to spread the teachings of literature among the young minds of future. Methodology:My research method will include a detailed study of Ham let text and the movie from every angle related to literature and its appeal to the audience, especially the novice level students of arts and literature. I will also concern this factor with the respective experts of both fields Literature and Cinema. Research Limitations: This study is limited by the study of a single literary text and a movie that resembles the similar plot, characters and moral values. A similar significant phenomenon can be observed in other works too but to study the comparison and representation in detail they have been excluded.Significance: As previously given this study will help the future development of literature learning and widen the scope of limited medium of learning. The study is limited to only a single comparison so as to keep the study in detailed spectrum. Tentative Chapterization: 1. Introduction: 2. Comparison between Plot and Characters: Tentative plan: The Lion King, though very much based on Hamlet, has many different elements that we can make comparisons with Shakespeare’s work. It begins with the birth of Simba, the young cub of the King, Mufasa. This introduces the importance of the natural cycle.As Mufasa says, â€Å"We are all connected in the great Circle of Life. † The death of one King leads to the rise of another. This is also what happens in Hamlet. Simba is born to be the successor of the King and he cannot deny his destined role. As a carefree cub, Simba â€Å"just can't wait to be king,† his attitude is quite different from Hamlet, who is also carefree in the beginning of the story, but does not want to be King. Similar to the plot in Hamlet, Mufasa’s spirit appears to Simba, and reminds him of his duty, and repeatedly tells Simba to â€Å"Remember† him when Simba runs away after thinking that he had caused the death of Mufasa.This is similar as in Hamlet, the Ghost of old Hamlet appears to him and asks his son to take revenge on Claudius. Also there is comparison betwe en secondary characters. 3. Detailed study of The Themes in the movie * Hierarchy and Legitimacy * The Role of Nature * The Importance of Borders 4. Influence of entertainment on Literature learners. Tentative Plan: A detailed study about how entertainment industry has influenced the younger generations and how it can help to expand the scope of learners of literature around the world. 5. CriticizingThere have been arguments that this kind of cultural analysis in fact, any close analysis at all ruins the entertainment value of the movie, forcing us to confront all kinds of unpleasant truths when we are expecting merely to be entertained. Granted that I see more layers of meaning every time I view the movie or listen to the music or read the script, but I still find the musical score stirring, the animations fanciful, and the antics of Timon and Pumbaa engaging. Just because we become aware of the multiple levels of meaning doesn't mean that we have to deny the aesthetic appeal of th is creation.Bibliography: Shakespeare, William. Hamlet: The New Variorum Edition. 2 vols. 1877. Ed. Horace Howard Furness. New York: Dover Publications, 2000. Shaw, George Bernard. â€Å"Shakespeare: A Standard Text. † Times Literary Supplement. 18 Mar. 1921. rpt. in Shaw on Theatre. Ed. E. J. West. New York: Hill and Wang, 1958. Rowse, A. L. , ed. Hamlet. 1978. By William Shakespeare. The Annotated Shakespeare. New York: Greenwich House, Crown Publishers, Inc. , 1988. Harrison, G. B, ed. â€Å"The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. † Major British Writers.Harcourt, Brace, & World, Inc. : New York, 1959. Adams, Joseph Quincy. A Life of William Shakespeare. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1923. Asimov, Isaac. Asimov's Guide to Shakespeare. 2 vols. New Jersey: Random House Value Publishing, Inc. , 1970. Eliot, T. S. â€Å"Hamlet. † Elizabethan Essays. Haskell House: New York, 1964. Brandes, Georg. â€Å"The Classic Tendency of the Tragedy. † Willia m Shakespeare, A Critical Study. 1898. Frederick Ungar Publishing Co: 1963. Taymor, Julie. The Lion King: Pride Rock on Broadway. Hyperion: New York, 1997.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Andrea Dworkin Quotes Radical Feminism in 24 Quotes

Andrea Dworkin, a radical feminist whose early activism including working against the Vietnam War, became a strong voice for the position that pornography is a tool by which men control, objectify, and subjugate women. With Catherine MacKinnon, Andrea Dworkin helped draft a Minnesota ordinance that did not outlaw pornography but allowed victims of rape and other sexual crimes to sue pornographers for damage, under the logic that the culture created by pornography supported sexual violence against women. Quotes on Pornography Pornography is used in rape - to plan it, to execute it, to choreograph it, to engender the excitement to commit the act. [Andrea testimony before the New York Attorney Generals Commission on Pornography in 1986] Women, for centuries not having access to pornography and now unable to bear looking at the muck on the supermarket shelves, are astonished. Women do not believe that men believe that pornography says about women. But they do. From the worst to the best of them, they do. Romantic love, in pornography as in life, is the mythic celebration of female negation. For a woman, love is defined as her willingness to submit to her own annihilation. The proof of love is that she is willing to be destroyed by the one whom she loves, for his sake. For the woman, love is always self-sacrifice, the sacrifice of identity, will, and bodily integrity, in order to fulfill and redeem the masculinity of her lover. Feminists are often asked whether pornography causes rape. The fact is that rape and prostitution caused and continue to cause pornography. Politically, culturally, socially, sexually, and economically, rape and prostitution generated pornography; and pornography depends for its continued existence on the rape and prostitution of women. On Masculinity and Men Men who want to support women in our struggle for freedom and justice should understand that it is not terrifically important to us that they learn to cry; it is important to us that they stop the crimes of violence against us. Men are rewarded for learning the practice of violence in virtually any sphere of activity by money, admiration, recognition, respect, and the genuflection of others honoring their sacred and proven masculinity. In male culture, police are heroic and so are outlaws; males who enforce standards are heroic and so are those who violate them. Institutionalized in sports, the military, acculturated sexuality, the history and mythology of heroism, violence is taught to boys until they becomes its advocates. Men have defined the parameters of every subject. All feminist arguments, however radical in intent or consequence, are with or against assertions or premises implicit in the male system, which is made credible or authentic by the power of men to name. Men know everything - all of them - all the time - no matter how stupid or inexperienced or arrogant or ignorant they are. Men especially love murder. In art they celebrate it. In life, they commit it. In this society, the norm of masculinity is phallic aggression. Male sexuality is, by definition, intensely and rigidly phallic. A mans identity is located in his conception of himself as the possessor of a phallus; a mans worth is located in his pride in phallic identity. The main characteristic of phallic identity is that worth is entirely contingent on the possession of a phallus. Since men have no other criteria for worth, no other notion of identity, those who do not have phalluses are not recognized as fully human. We have a double standard, which is to say, a man can show how much he cares by being violent -- see, hes jealous, he cares -- a woman shows how much she cares by how much shes willing to be hurt; by how much she will take; how much she will endure. On Rape Culture and Sex By the time we are women, fear is as familiar to us as air; it is our element. We live in it, we inhale it, we exhale it, and most of the time we do not even notice it. Instead of I am afraid, we say, I dont want to, or I dont know how, or I cant. Seduction is often difficult to distinguish from rape. In seduction, the rapist often bothers to buy a bottle of wine. We are very close to death. All women are. And we are very close to rape and we are very close to beating. And we are inside a system of humiliation from which there is no escape for us. We use statistics not to try to quantify the injuries, but to convince the world that those injuries even exist. Those statistics are not abstractions. It is easy to say, Ah, the statistics, somebody writes them up one way and somebody writes them up another way. That’s true. But I hear about the rapes one by one by one by one by one, which is also how they happen. Those statistics are not abstract to me. Every three minutes a woman is being raped. Every eighteen seconds a woman is being beaten. There is nothing abstract about it. It is happening right now as I am speaking. Intercourse as an act often expresses the power men have over women. More Quotes by Andrea Dworkin Feminism is hated because women are hated. Anti-feminism is a direct expression of misogyny; it is the political defense of women hating. Being a Jew, one learns to believe in the reality of cruelty and one learns to recognize indifference to human suffering as a fact. Woman is not born: she is made. In the making, her humanity is destroyed. She becomes symbol of this, symbol of that: mother of the earth, slut of the universe; but she never becomes herself because it is forbidden for her to do so. Sexism is the foundation on which all tyranny is built. Every social form of hierarchy and abuse is modeled on male-over-female domination. The fact that we are all trained to be mothers from infancy on means that we are all trained to devote our lives to men, whether they are our sons or not; that we are all trained to force other women to exemplify the lack of qualities which characterizes the cultural construct of femininity. We have a double standard, which is to say, a man can show how much he cares by being violent -- see, hes jealous, he cares -- a woman shows how much she cares by how much shes willing to be hurt; by how much she will take; how much she will endure. The argument between wives and whores is an old one; each one thinking that whatever she is, at least she is not the other. The genius of any slave system is found in the dynamics which isolate slaves from each other, obscure the reality of a common condition, and make united rebellion against the oppressor inconceivable. While gossip among women is universally ridiculed as low and trivial, gossip among men, especially if it is about women, is called theory, or idea, or fact.

Friday, December 27, 2019

Ethos, Logos, Pathos for Persuasion

You may be surprised to learn that much of your life consists of constructing arguments. If you ever plead a case to your parents—in order to extend your curfew or to get a new gadget, for example—you are using persuasive strategies. When you discuss music with friends and agree or disagree with them about the merits of one singer compared to another, you are also using strategies for persuasion. Indeed, when you engage in these arguments with your parents and friends, you are instinctively using ancient strategies for persuasion that were identified by the Greek philosopher Aristotle a few thousand years ago. Aristotle called his ingredients for persuasion pathos, logos, and ethos. Persuasion Tactics and Homework When you write a research paper, write a speech, or participate in a debate, you also use the persuasion strategies mentioned above. You come up with an idea (a thesis) and then construct an argument to convince readers that your idea is sound. You should become familiar with pathos, logos, and ethos for two reasons: First, you need to develop your own skills at crafting a good argument so that others will take you seriously. Second, you must develop the ability to identify a really weak argument, stance, claim, or position when you see or hear it. Logos Defined Logos refers to an appeal to reason based on logic. Logical conclusions come from assumptions and decisions derived from weighing a collection of solid facts and statistics. Academic arguments (research papers) rely on logos. An example of an argument that relies on logos is the argument that smoking is harmful based on the evidence that, When burned, cigarettes create more than 7,000 chemicals. At least 69 of these chemicals are known to cause cancer, and many are toxic, according to the American Lung Association. Notice that the statement above uses specific numbers. Numbers are sound and logical. An everyday example of an appeal to logos is the argument that Lady Gaga is more popular than Justin Bieber because Gagas fan pages collected 10 million more Facebook fans than Biebers. As a researcher, your job is to find statistics and other facts to back up your claims. When you do this, you are appealing to your audience with logic or logos. Ethos Defined Trustworthiness is important in research. You must trust your sources, and your readers must trust you. The example above concerning logos contained two examples that were based on hard facts (numbers). However, one example comes from the American Lung Association. The other comes from Facebook fan pages. You should ask yourself: Which of these sources do you suppose is more credible? Anyone can start a Facebook page. Lady Gaga may have 50 different fan pages, and each page may contain duplicate fans. The fan page argument is probably not very sound (even though it seems logical). Ethos refers to the credibility of the person posing the argument or stating the facts. The facts provided by the American Lung Association are probably more persuasive than those provided by fan pages since the American Lung Association has been around for more than 100 years. At first glance, you might think that your own credibility is out of your control when it comes to posing academic arguments, but that is incorrect. Even if you write an academic paper on a topic that is outside your area of expertise, you can improve your credibility—using ethos to persuade—by coming across as a professional by citing credible sources and making your writing error-free and concise. Pathos Defined Pathos refers to appealing to a person by influencing his emotions. Pathos is involved in the strategy of convincing the audience by invoking feelings through their own imaginations. You appeal through pathos when you try to convince your parents of something. Consider this statement: Mom, there is clear evidence that cellphones save lives in emergency situations. While that statement is true, the real power lies in the emotions that you will likely invoke in your parents. What mother wouldnt envision a broken-down automobile perched by the side of a busy highway upon hearing that statement? Emotional appeals are extremely effective, but they can be tricky. There may or may not be a place for pathos in your research paper. For example, you may be writing an argumentative essay about the death penalty. Ideally, your paper should contain a logical argument. You should appeal to logos by including statics to support your view such as data that suggests that the death penalty does/does not cut down on crime (theres plenty of research both ways). Use Appeals to Emotion Sparingly You may also use pathos by interviewing someone who witnessed an execution (on the anti-death penalty side) or someone who found closure when a criminal was executed (on the pro-death penalty side). Generally, however, academic papers should employ appeals to emotions sparingly. A long paper that is purely based on emotions is not considered very professional. Even when you are writing about an emotionally charged, controversial issue like the death penalty, you cant write a paper that is all emotion and opinion. The teacher, in that circumstance, will likely assign a failing grade because you havent provided a sound (logical) argument. Source â€Å"Whats In a Cigarette?†Ã‚  American Lung Association,

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Obesity Is The Reason Our Youth - 972 Words

Introduction Childhood obesity has been on a steady incline over the past 30 years and is considered a serious public health concern, especially in elementary school aged children. According to the US Surgeon General, nearly one in three children are overweight or obese (US Department of Human Health Services, 2014). The American Heart Association (2010) has age and sex specific growth charts that show the calculation of children’s BMI using their height and weight. When children’s weight is well above the average for their height and age they are classified as obese. Children BMI- for age is in the 95th percentile or higher is considered to be obese. Obese children normally consume more energy in the form of food and drinks then they burn off with physical exercise (Kids Health, 2014). Our nation’s obesity epidemic effects are immense: taxpayers, communities, and families spend hundreds of billions of dollars each year in medical costs and attempts to end childhood obe sity (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2014). Obesity is the reason our youth is predicted to live shorter lives than our parents and we need to change this. Childhood obesity has long-term harmful effects on a child’s future health. Obese children are more likely to have high blood pressure and high cholesterol which put them more at risk for cardiovascular disease in the future (Center for Disease Control Prevention, 2014). Childhood obesity can lead to type 2 diabetes, cancer, asthma, jointShow MoreRelatedHealthy Choices for Better Living Essay1588 Words   |  7 Pagesand key role in childhood obesity? Can we hold the media responsible for our food purchases and meals that we as a society choose to provide our children? 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ThisRead MoreEducation Of A School s Physical Education Program1280 Words   |  6 Pageslast, obesity. According to schools in Texas and Governor Rick Perry, these schools will be participating in physical education to reduce the beginning of diabetes. Since America is considered overweight, they did not think there was a better way to hopefully decrease obesity than to incorporate more physical education in to schools. â€Å"Kindergarten through fifth grade graders are required to ex ert for thirty minutes during PE or structured recess, which students will begin this fall† (Obesity, 2007Read MoreChildhood Obesity663 Words   |  3 PagesChildhood Obesity ENG 202 English Composition II Joan Martell Smith 7/3/2011 I. Introduction A. Thesis Statement Obesity can happen to anyone for many reasons and it can be reversed many different ways. There are several causes for obesity in America, including fast- food restaurants and their marketing, hereditary obesity, and people reacting to the stereotypes in the media that you must be beautiful to be accepted. Read MoreVideo Mediums and Childhood Obesity971 Words   |  4 PagesVideo Mediums and Childhood Obesity Childhood Obesity has now reached a critical level. The main reason for the growing number of obese children is inactivity. With obesity in children being related to many health issues, it is important that we not only stop the rise in childhood obesity, but reverse it. With their health at risk, it is imperative that we assure our children are in good physical shape and at healthy weight levels. The stakes are quite high, according to the U.S. Department

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Analysis of Conceptual Framework Standards

Question: Discuss about the Analysis of Conceptual Framework Standards. Answer: Introduction The primary purpose of developing general purpose financial statements is to disclose the information related to financial growth and development of a business corporation. The primary users of financial reports of a corporation includes investors, creditors and other stakeholders who need the information to make decisions about selling, buying or holding their equity or debt instruments. In addition to this, the primary users of financial statements also need to assess the financial information for gaining an analysis of the efficiency of management in carrying out their roles and responsibilities (Titilayo et al., 2014). The IASB (International Accounting Standards Board) has developed and established conceptual accounting framework that describes the principles and standards to be adopted by the accountants at the time of preparing financial statements (Persons, 2013). In this context, the present report evaluates the need and effectiveness of accounting framework for supporting t he decision-making process of end-users. This is done in the report by analyzing the compliance of annual reports of Medibank health insurance ltd and Virtus health ltd with the conceptual framework and AASB standard requirements. This will help in examining the effectiveness of conceptual framework in meeting the financial reporting requirements of business corporations. Also, the report examines the need of including Prudence in conceptual framework to overcome any type of disparity in corporate reporting. Examining Compliance of Medibank health insurance ltd and Virus health ltd with the conceptual framework and AASB standard requirements The major principles of conceptual framework of accounting are reliability, relevance, consistency and comparability that need to be followed by business entities during financial reporting. The reliability principle states that financial statements must provide true and realistic information to the external parties with no concealing of financial facts and figures. As per the relevance principle, the information disclosed must be complete and relevant to be used by external parties in decision-making (Burton and Jermakowicz, 2015). The consistency principle states that financial information disclosed on an annual basis by a business corporation must be consistent with that of previous year. At last, the comparability principle states that financial information disclosed must be comparable with the previous year results in order to demonstrate the net financial growth. The Australian Accounting Standards Board (AASB) holds the responsibility within Australia to ensure that all busine sses should comply with the IASB standards (Hoffman, 2016). The annual reports of Medibank health insurance ltd and Virtus health ltd are analyzed to examine their compliance with the above mentioned principles of conceptual accounting framework. Medibank health insurance is a leading private health insurer of Australia actively involved in providing varying range of health insurance options for individual, couple and family. The annual report analyses demonstrates that the company have prepared and published its remuneration report, directors report, corporate governance statement, auditors report as per the AASB standards. The remuneration report of Medibank health insurance is developed in accordance with the AASB standards as analyzed from its annual report. The remuneration report is as per the relevance principle of conceptual framework as it provides complete information related to compensation of board members. Also, the remuneration policies adopted by the company for controlling and reviewing the remuneration of board members are also discussed in the report. The role of remuneration committee in deciding the compensation including incentives of executives and non-executive directors is clearly mentioned in the repo rt (Medibank: Annual Report, 2016). The remuneration report also illustrates that the reward and incentive system of employees is directly linked with their performance. Thus, the company has shared all the information related to compensation and reward in an honest and transparent manner in order to comply with AASB standard of honesty and integrity (Knight, 2004). The corporate governance statement of the company has also disclosed all the necessary information related to corporate rules and policies adopted for managing the workplace diversity. The auditors report discloses the standards adopted by the company to maintain integrity and quality of the financial reporting (Kieso et al., 2010). The company has established an independent audit and risk management committee for irks management, compliance and internal control. Thus, it can be said that Medibank effectively complies with reliability and relevance principle of conceptual framework by disclosing all the relevant and reliable information to the stakeholders (Medibank: Annual Report, 2016). The company also complies with the consistency and comparability principle of conceptual framework as it discloses all the financial information that is in consistent and comparable with that of previous years. The financial information is disclosed through preparation of cash flows, statement of changes in equity, income statement and balance sheet. The accounting policies and procedures adopted for the preparation of the financial statements are also disclosed properly in the annual report of the company. The directors report also declares that financial statements comply with the Corporations Act 2001 as per the AASB standards. The annual report of the company meets the different needs of stakeholders through demonstrating a link between governance and shareholder value creation. The directors report states that companys leaders satisfy their statutory duties well by promoting its long-term development. The company also develops and publishes its consolidated financial statements as per the Corporations Act 2001. The development of consolidated financial statements is required to integrate the financial reports of all subsidiaries in a single economic entity (Medibank: Annual Report, 2016). On the other hand, Virtus Health ltd is an Australian company involved in providing hospital and pathology services. The company is recognized to be largest in vitro fertilization provider in Australia. The annual report of the company publishes and discloses effectively all the information related to the compensation of executive directors and non-executive directors. The remuneration committee holds the responsibility of deciding over the matters related to compensation of board members. However, the company has not disclosed its corporate governance statement in the annual report. The disclosure of corporate governance policies followed within the workplace is required by a business entity in order to comply with the AASB standards of ethics and integrity (Persons, 2013). The auditors report of the company also has not published complete information about the procedures adopted for risk management. The company has not disclosed concise information about the control systems impleme nted for monitoring and controlling its internal business procedures (Virtus Health: Annual Report, 2016). The company though has published all its financial information as per the AASB standards through developing its statement of cash flows, statement of financial position, income statement and balance sheet. It has also published its consolidated financial statements as per the Corporations Act 2001 mandated by the AASB standards. Thus, it can be said that there is some difference in the financial disclosure of both the corporations. The companies are operating within Australia and thus need to comply with AASB standards effectively. However, as analyzed from the annual report of both companies, only Medibank health insurance ltd effectively complies with all the AASB standards and principle of conceptual framework (Medibank: Annual Report, 2016). Vitrus health ltd does not comply with all principle of conceptual framework such as relevance and reliability. The company has not disclosed all information related to the accounting policies and procedures adopted for the preparation of fin ancial statements. Also, the pattern of disclosing financial information is different in both the companies due to their varying nature of business operations (Virtus Health: Annual Report, 2016). Thus, it can be stated from analysis of annual report of both the companies that they develop their financial reports in accordance with the conceptual framework and AASB standards. The adoption of conceptual framework of accounting has enabled them to meet the needs of end-users of financial reports through providing complete and concise financial information. However, Virtus health ltd has not effectively complied with all the accounting standards and principles of conceptual framework and AASB (Virtus Health: Annual Report, 2016). The complete disclosure regarding the remuneration, risk management, internal control, operating income and expenses is provided in the annual reports through the adoption of conceptual accounting framework. Thus, it can be stated that conceptual framework principles effectively meets the needs of end-users of financial reports (Whittington, 2008). Inclusion of Prudence to address Disparity in Corporate Reporting The accounting transactions are related with uncertainties and require to be reported in time. The uncertainties in financial transactions need to be reported by making proper estimates during financial reporting. The accountants need to be very cautious and prudent at the time of taking financial decisions (Mbira and Tapera, 2016). In this context, prudence is a major accounting principle according to which assets and income should not be overstated and liabilities should not be understated during financial reporting. The concept states that expenses and liabilities should be recognized immediately after their occurrence but revenues should be reported only when they are actually realized. This concept was included in the conceptual accounting framework in order to meet the varying needs of different stakeholders of a business corporation. The main objective behind the development of conceptual accounting framework is to protect the stakeholders interest by promoting transparency an d integrity in financial reporting. The implementation of prudence principle ensures that businesses do not report overstated revenues or understated expenses during financial reporting (Malley, 2014). The concept is in accordance with the conservatism principle of accounting according to which expenses and liabilities should be reported immediately when there is uncertainty about the outcome. However, revenues and assets should be recognized only when they are assured of being received. The concept was removed from the conceptual accounting framework on the basis as it opposes accrual basis of accounting. Accrual basis of accounting states that businesses should prepare themselves in advance for the occurrence of any uncertain condition through creation of hidden reserves. Thus, the concept of prudence was removed from the conceptual accounting framework as it received criticism from some financial experts as it was found to be against accrual basis of accounting. However, the increasing evidence of corporate scandal worldwide due to manipulation of accounting information has caused its inclusion again in the conceptual framework (Araujo and Gomes, 2015). The inclusion of prudence concept will ensure that there is no biasness in the financial statements and the information presented is fair and transparent. This will help in overcoming the increasing evidences of corporate scandal that are occurring due to misrepresentation of financial statements. The IASB has again adopted the principle of prudence in the accounting framework so that potential investors and creditors get fair representation of a business financial position. This is necessary so that there is no manipulation of accounts and stakeholders get a clear demonstration of the financial position of a business entity (Ataman et al., 2014). The occurrence of corporate scandals such as Enron, World.com etc has lead to the downfall of investors and creditors as they suffered huge losses by financial misrepresentation. This caused IASB to adopt strict accounting standards that need to be followed by businesses during financial reporting. This has caused the need of including prud ence in conceptual framework again for overcoming disparity in corporate reporting (Prudence and IFRS, 2014). Recommendations On the basis of analysis of annual reports of Medibank health insurance and Virtus health ltd, it can be said that conceptual framework principles adequately meeting the needs of stakeholders. The companies are complying with conceptual framework principles and AASB standards and thus have achieved a good brand image in the country. The main advantages of adopting conceptual framework of accounting principles by businesses are increasing the users confidence and gaining a realistic image of the financial performance of the business organization (Macve, 2015). However, IASB still need to develop more strict guidelines for business corporations for meeting the needs of end-users of financial reports. This is because adoption of conceptual framework principle is very difficult for all organization as it is very expensive and time consuming (Unegbu, 2014). This can be demonstrated from the fact that Virtus health ltd has also not effectively complied with all the principles of conceptual framework (Virtus Health: Annual Report, 2016). Also, it will restrict the business to develop new idea of financial reporting as they will be mandated to report their financial performance using same standard accounting practices. Thus, IASB still need to consider all the above mentioned points for improving the financial reporting system of businesses worldwide (Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting 2010, 2017). Conclusion It can be summarized from the overall discussion that the adoption of conceptual accounting framework principles by businesses promotes transparency and honesty in financial reporting. However, there is still need of improvement in accounting standards so that all businesses are able to implement sound financial reporting system that is able to meet the varying needs of stakeholders. References Araujo, V. and Gomes, A. 2015. Analysis of Opinions Issued in Comment Letters on the Term Prudence. Journal of Education and Research in Accounting 9(2), pp. 209-225. Ataman, B. et al. 2014. Preparedness for and perception of IFRS for SMEs: evidence from Turkey. Accounting and Management Information Systems 13(3), pp. 492-519. Burton, G. and Jermakowicz, E.K. 2015. International Financial Reporting Standards: A Framework-Based Perspective. Routledge. Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting 2010. 2017. [Online]. Available at: https://www.iasplus.com/en/standards/other/framework [Accessed on: 17 April 2017]. Hoffman, C.W. 2016. Revising the Conceptual Framework of the International Standards: IASB Proposals Met with Support and Skepticism. World Journal of Business and Management 2 (1), pp. 1-32. Kieso, D. E. et al. 2010. Intermediate Accounting: IFRS Edition. John Wiley Sons. Knight, J. 2004. Internationalization Remodeled: Definition, Approaches, and Rationales. Journal of Studies in International Education 8 (5), pp. 5-29. Macve, R. 2015. A Conceptual Framework for Financial Accounting and Reporting: Vision, Tool, Or Threat. Routledge. Malley, A. 2014. Opinion: Is prudence still a virtue? [Online]. Available at: https://www.theaccountant-online.com/news/is-prudence-still-a-virtue-4276220 [Accessed on: 17April 2017]. Mbira, L. and Tapera, J. 2016. Key Success Drivers for Microfinance Institutions in Zimbabwe: Developing Core Competences for Financial Inclusion. International Journal of Business and Social Science 7 (3), pp. 128-136. Medibank: Annual Report. 2016. [Online]. Available at: https://www.medibank.com.au/content/dam/medibank/About-Us/reporting-centre-2016/Annual%20report/Medibank_Annual_Report_2016.pdf [Accessed on: 17 April 2017]. Persons, O. 2013. A principles-based approach to teaching International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Journal of Instructional Pedagogies. Whittington, G. 2008. Fair Value and the IASB/FASB Conceptual Framework Project: An Alternative View. ABACUS 44 (2), pp. 139-168. Prudence and IFRS. 2014. [Online]. Available at: https://www.accaglobal.com/content/dam/acca/global/PDF-technical/financial-reporting/tech-tp-prudence.pdf[Accessed on: 17 April 2017]. Titilayo, D. et al. 2014. International Financial Reporting Standards (Ifrs) For Smes Adoption Process In Nigeria. European Journal of Accounting Auditing and Finance Research 2 (4), pp.33-38. Unegbu, A. O. 2014. Theories of Accounting: Evolution Developments, Income Determination and Diversities in Use. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting 5 (19), pp. 1-15. Virtus Health: Annual Report. 2016. [Online]. Available at: https://www.virtushealth.com.au/sites/virtushealth.com.au/files/reports/vrt-annual-report-fy16.pdf [Accessed on: 17 April 2017].

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Taoism, Confucianism And Buddhism Essay Example For Students

Taoism, Confucianism And Buddhism Essay Taoism is one of the two great philosophical and religious traditions that originated in China. The other religion native to China is Confucianism. Both Taoism and Confucianism began at about the same time, around the sixth century B.C.E. China’s third great religion, Buddhism, came to China from India around the second century of the common era. Together, these three faiths have shaped Chinese life and thought for nearly twenty-five hundred years (Legge1, 124). One dominate concept in Taoism and Buddhism is the belief in some form of reincarnation. The idea that life does not end when one dies is an integral part of these religions and the culture of the Chinese people. Reincarnation, life after death, beliefs are not standardized. Each religion has a different way of applying this concept to its beliefs. This paper will describe the reincarnation concepts as they apply to Taoism and Buddhism, and then provide a comparison of the two. We will write a custom essay on Taoism, Confucianism And Buddhism specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The goal in Taoism is to achieve Tao, to find the way. Tao is the ultimate reality, a presence that existed before the universe was formed and which continues to guide the world and everything in it. Tao is sometimes identified as the Mother, or the source of all things. That source is not a god or a supreme being, as Taoism is not monotheistic. The focus is not to worship one god, but instead on coming into harmony with Tao (Legge 8). Tao is the essence of everything that is right, and complications exist only because people choose to complicate their own lives. Desire, ambition, fame, and selfishness are seen as hindrances to a harmonious life. It is only when a person rids himself of all desires that Tao can be achieved. By shunning every earthly distraction, the Taoist is able to concentrate on life itself. The longer the person’s life, the more saintly the person is presumed to have become. Eventually the hope is to become immortal, to achieve Tao, to have reached the dee per life. This is the after life for a Taoist, to be in harmony with the universe, to have achieved Tao (Legge2, 65). To understand the relationship between life, and the Taoism concept of life and death, the origin of the word Tao must be understood. The Chinese character for Tao is a combination of two characters that represent the words head and foot. The character for foot represents the idea of a person’s direction or path. The character for head also suggests a beginning, and a foot, an ending. Thus the character for Tao also conveys the continuing course of the universe, the circle of heaven and earth. Finally, the character for Tao represents the Taoist idea that the eternal Tao is both moving and unmoving. The head in the character means the beginning, the source of all things, or Tao itself, which never moves or changes; the foot is the movement on the path (Cooper, 122). Taoism upholds the belief in the survival of the spirit after death. â€Å"To have attained th e human form must be always a source of joy and then to undergo countless transitions, with only the infinite to look forward to, what comparable bliss is that! Therefore it is that the truly wise rejoice in, that which can never be lost, but endures always† (Leek, 190). Taoist believe that birth is not a beginning and death is not an end. There is an existence without limit. Applying reincarnation theory to Taoism is the belief that the soul never dies; a person’s soul is eternal. â€Å"You see death in contrast to life; and both are unreal – both are changing and seeming. Your soul does not glide out of a familiar sea into an unfamiliar ocean. That which is real in you, your soul, can never pass away, and this fear is no part of her† (Legge2, 199). In the writings of The Tao Te King, Tao is described as having existed before heaven and earth. Tao is formless, stands alone without change and reaches everywhere without harm. The Taoist is told to use the l ight that is inside to revert to the natural clearness of sight. By divesting oneself of all external distractions and desires, only then can one achieve Tao. In ancient days a Taoist that had transcended birth and death, achieved Tao, was said to have cut the Thread of Life (Cooper, 13). The soul, or spirit, in Taoism does not die at death. The soul is not reborn, it migrates to another life. This process, the Taoist version of reincarnation, is repeated until Tao is achieved. The following translation from The Tao Te King best summarizes the theory behind Tao and how a Taoist can achieve Tao. The Great Way is very smooth, but the people love the by-paths†¦The wearing of gay embroidered robes, the carrying of sharp swords, fastidiousness in food and drink, superabundance of property and wealth: this I call flaunting robbery; most assuredly it is not Tao†¦He who acts in accordance with Tao, becomes one with Tao†¦Being akin to Heaven, he possesses Tao. Possessed of Ta o, he endures forever†¦Being great (Tao) passes on; passing on, it becomes remote; having become remote, it returns (Cooper, 109). .u3a2f0e9dc80173910f49be227b963f87 , .u3a2f0e9dc80173910f49be227b963f87 .postImageUrl , .u3a2f0e9dc80173910f49be227b963f87 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u3a2f0e9dc80173910f49be227b963f87 , .u3a2f0e9dc80173910f49be227b963f87:hover , .u3a2f0e9dc80173910f49be227b963f87:visited , .u3a2f0e9dc80173910f49be227b963f87:active { border:0!important; } .u3a2f0e9dc80173910f49be227b963f87 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u3a2f0e9dc80173910f49be227b963f87 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u3a2f0e9dc80173910f49be227b963f87:active , .u3a2f0e9dc80173910f49be227b963f87:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u3a2f0e9dc80173910f49be227b963f87 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u3a2f0e9dc80173910f49be227b963f87 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u3a2f0e9dc80173910f49be227b963f87 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u3a2f0e9dc80173910f49be227b963f87 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u3a2f0e9dc80173910f49be227b963f87:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u3a2f0e9dc80173910f49be227b963f87 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u3a2f0e9dc80173910f49be227b963f87 .u3a2f0e9dc80173910f49be227b963f87-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u3a2f0e9dc80173910f49be227b963f87:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Physician assisted suicide EssayThe followers of the Buddha believe life goes on and on in many reincarnations or rebirths. The eternal hope for all followers of Buddha is that through reincarnation one comes back into successively better lives – until one achieves the goal of being free from pain and suffering and not having to come back again. This wheel of rebirth, known as samsara, goes on forever or until one achieves Nirvana. The Buddhist definition of Nirvana is â€Å"the highest state of spiritual bliss, as absolute immortality through absorption of the soul into itself, but preserving individuality† (Reat, 57). Birth is not the beginning and death is not the end. This cycle of life has no beginning and can go on forever without an end. The ultimate goal for every Buddhist, Nirvana, represents total enlightenment and liberation. Only through achieving this goal is one liberated from the never ending round of birth, death, and rebirth (Reat, 73). Transmigration, the Buddhist cycle of birth, death, and rebirth, involves not the reincarnation of a spirit but the rebirth of a consciousness containing the seeds of good and evil deeds. Buddhism’s world of transmigration encompasses three stages. The first stage is concerned with desire, which goes against the teachings of Buddha, is the lowest form and involves a rebirth into any number of hells. The second stage is one in which animals dominate. But after many reincarnations in this stage the spirit becomes more and more human, until one attains a deep spiritual understanding. At this point in the second stage the Buddhist gradually begins to abandon materialism and seek a con templative life. The Buddhist in the third stage is ultimately able to put his ego to the side and become a pure spirit, having no perception of the material world. This stage requires one to move from perception to non-perception. And so, through many stages of spiritual evolution and numerous reincarnat6ions, the Buddhist reaches the state of Nirvana (Leek, 171). The transition from one stage to another, or the progression within a stage is based on the actions of the Buddhist. All actions are simply the display of thought, the will of man. This will is caused by character, and character is manufactured from karma. Karma means action or doing. Any kind of intentional action whether mental, verbal, or physical, is regarded as karma. All good and bad actions constitute karma. As is the karma, so is the will of the man. A person’s karma determines what he deserves and what goals can be achieved. The Buddhists past life actions determine the next life, all is determined by the Buddhist’s karma (Reat, 20). Buddha developed a doctrine known as the Four Noble Truths based on his experience and inspiration about the nature of life. These truths are the basis for all schools of Buddhism. The fourth truth describes the way to overcome personal desire through the Eightfold Path. Buddha called his path the Middle Way, because it lies between a life of luxury and a life of poverty. Not everyone can reach the goal of Nirvana, but every Buddhist is at least on the path toward enlightenment. To achieve Nirvana the Buddhist must follow the steps of the Eightfold Path. 1. Right knowledge is knowledge of what life is all about; knowledge of the Four Noble Truths is basic to any further growth as a Buddhist. 2. Right Aspiration means a clear devotion to being on the Path toward Enlightenment. 3. Right Speech involves both clarity of what is said and speaking kindly and without malice. 4. Right Behavior involves reflection on one’s behavior and the reasons for it. It also involves five basic laws of behavior for Buddhists: not to kill, steal, lie, drink intoxicants, or commit sexual offenses. 5. Right Livelihood involves choosing an occupation that keeps an individual on the Path; that is, a path that promotes life and well-being, rather than the accumulation of a lot of money. .u1605b7b2ea963fb9e8facc4069354641 , .u1605b7b2ea963fb9e8facc4069354641 .postImageUrl , .u1605b7b2ea963fb9e8facc4069354641 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u1605b7b2ea963fb9e8facc4069354641 , .u1605b7b2ea963fb9e8facc4069354641:hover , .u1605b7b2ea963fb9e8facc4069354641:visited , .u1605b7b2ea963fb9e8facc4069354641:active { border:0!important; } .u1605b7b2ea963fb9e8facc4069354641 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u1605b7b2ea963fb9e8facc4069354641 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u1605b7b2ea963fb9e8facc4069354641:active , .u1605b7b2ea963fb9e8facc4069354641:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u1605b7b2ea963fb9e8facc4069354641 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u1605b7b2ea963fb9e8facc4069354641 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u1605b7b2ea963fb9e8facc4069354641 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u1605b7b2ea963fb9e8facc4069354641 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u1605b7b2ea963fb9e8facc4069354641:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u1605b7b2ea963fb9e8facc4069354641 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u1605b7b2ea963fb9e8facc4069354641 .u1605b7b2ea963fb9e8facc4069354641-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u1605b7b2ea963fb9e8facc4069354641:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Earthquake San Francisco- 1906 Essay6. Right Effort means training the will and curbing selfish passions and wants. It also means placing oneself along the Path toward Enlightenment. 7. Right Mindfulness implies continuing self-examination and awareness. 8. Right Concentration is the final goal to be absorbed into a state of Nirvana Compliance to the path does not guarantee reaching Nirvana, but it is the only path that leads to Nirvana. Only through following this path established by Buddha does a Buddhist have a chance to reach enlightenment, to free oneself from the continuous rounds of birth, death, and rebirth, to have reached the ultimate goal – to be absorbed into a state of Nirvana. The goal in both Taoism and Buddhism is to reach the ultimate goal, to transcend life on earth as a physical being, to achieve harmony with nature and the universe. The ultimate goal for both religions is to achieve immortality. The Taoist called this ultimate goal Tao, while the Buddhist seek Nirvana. Whatever the name, the followers of these religions believe there is an existence beyond life which can be achieved provided the right path or behavior is followed. The paths to Tao and Nirvana are similar, yet different. Both believe there i s an inner light to guide a person to achieve eternal bliss. â€Å"The teaching regarding the inner light is just as prominent in the Taoist schools as it is among the practices of Buddhism† (Reat, 36). The inner light concept is similar, but the actual path is the difference between the Taoism and Buddhism. The path toward enlightenment for the Buddhist was defined by Buddha in his Eightfold Path. Only through following this path does the Buddhist reach Nirvana. The path to Tao is individual, it comes from within. No one can define a path for the Taoist; it must come from the inner light. â€Å"Tao means way, but in the original and succeeding manuscripts no direct path is explored or expounded. Desire, ambition, fame, and selfishness are seen as complications. That idea is consistent with Buddhist teachings; it is the personal life of each individual that gives Taoism its special form† (Leek, 188). Taoism and Buddhism perceive life, death, and rebirth as a continuous cycle. This cycle has no beginning and no end. The soul is eternal, yet the soul is not the object of reincarnation. Taoists believe the soul is not reborn, it â€Å"migrates to another life† (Legge1, 109). Buddhist also believe the soul is not reborn, but instead a â€Å"consciousness containing the seeds of good and evil deeds† is the object of rebirth (Leek, 171). One major difference between Taoism and Buddhism is the concept of karma to the Buddhist. This idea that all actions are the display of thought, the will of man, is known as karma. Karma determines where in the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth the consciousness return. This return can be in the form of an animal or human, and the Buddhist must progress through a hierarchy to achieve Nirvana (Leek, 171). The Taoist has no concept similar to karma, and no mention of the soul migrating to an animal form. The determining factor to one’s life is contained in the individual behavior fro the Taoist. By forsaking personal desires in life, by concentrating of the self, a longer life is prolonged. Eventually, by following the inner light, immortality can be achieved. The similarities between Taoism and Buddhism in the belief of life after death far outweigh the differences. Both religions believe the individual must focus on the self to achieve the ultimate goal. To focus on oneself, all desires and personal ambitions must be forsaken. One must focus on the self and the proper way of life to reach immortality. The cycle of life continues indefinitely until the Thread of Life is broken. Only through proper living, by following the correct path guided by the inner light, can one achieve the ultimate goal of Tao or Nirvana. Religion Taoism, Confucianism And Buddhism Essay Example For Students Taoism, Confucianism And Buddhism Essay Taoism is one of the two great philosophical and religious traditions that originated in China. The other religion native to China is Confucianism. Both Taoism and Confucianism began at about the same time, around the sixth century B.C.E. Chinas third great religion, Buddhism, came to China from India around the second century of the common era. Together, these three faiths have shaped Chinese life and thought for nearly twenty-five hundred years (Legge1, 124). One dominate concept in Taoism and Buddhism is the belief in some form of reincarnation. The idea that life does not end when one dies is an integral part of these religions and the culture of the Chinese people. Reincarnation, life after death, beliefs are not standardized. Each religion has a different way of applying this concept to its beliefs. We will write a custom essay on Taoism, Confucianism And Buddhism specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now This paper will describe the reincarnation concepts as they apply to Taoism and Buddhism, and then provide a comparison of the two. The goal in Taoism is to achieve Tao, to find the way. Tao is the ultimate reality, a presence that existed before the universe was formed and which continues to guide the world and everything in it. Tao is sometimes identified as the Mother, or the source of all things. That source is not a god or a supreme being, as Taoism is not monotheistic. The focus is not to worship one god, but instead on coming into harmony with Tao (Legge 8). Tao is the essence of everything that is right, and complications exist only because people choose to complicate their own lives. Desire, ambition, fame, and selfishness are seen as hindrances to a harmonious life. It is only when a person rids himself of all desires that Tao can be achieved. By shunning every earthly distraction, the Taoist is able to concentrate on life itself. The longer the persons life, the more saintly the person is presumed to have become. Eventually the hope is to become immortal, to achieve Tao, to have reached the deeper life. This is the after life for a Taoist, to be in harmony with the universe, to have achieved Tao (Legge2, 65). To understand the relationship between life, and the Taoism concept of life and death, the origin of the word Tao must be understood. The Chinese character for Tao is a combination of two characters that represent the words head and foot. The character for foot represents the idea of a persons direction or path. The character for head also suggests a beginning, and a foot, an ending. Thus the character for Tao also conveys the continuing course of the universe, the circle of heaven and earth. Finally, the character for Tao represents the Taoist idea that the eternal Tao is both moving and unmoving. The head in the character means the beginning, the source of all things, or Tao itself, which never moves or changes; the foot is the movement on the path (Cooper, 122). Taoism upholds the belief in the survival of the spirit after death. To have attained the human form must be always a source of joy and then to undergo countless transitions, with only the infinite to look forward to, what comparable bliss is that! Therefore it is that the truly wise rejoice in, that which can never be lost, but endures always (Leek, 190). Taoist believe that birth is not a beginning and death is not an end. There is an existence without limit. Applying reincarnation theory to Taoism is the belief that the soul never dies; a persons soul is eternal. You see death in contrast to life; and both are unreal both are changing and seeming. Your soul does not glide out of a familiar sea into an unfamiliar ocean. That which is real in you, your soul, can never pass away, and this fear is no part of her (Legge2, 199). In the writings of The Tao Te King, Tao is described as having existed before heaven and earth. Tao is formless, stands alone without change and reaches everywhere without harm. .u50f18d97fc25e217ea00842f814ecd19 , .u50f18d97fc25e217ea00842f814ecd19 .postImageUrl , .u50f18d97fc25e217ea00842f814ecd19 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u50f18d97fc25e217ea00842f814ecd19 , .u50f18d97fc25e217ea00842f814ecd19:hover , .u50f18d97fc25e217ea00842f814ecd19:visited , .u50f18d97fc25e217ea00842f814ecd19:active { border:0!important; } .u50f18d97fc25e217ea00842f814ecd19 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u50f18d97fc25e217ea00842f814ecd19 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u50f18d97fc25e217ea00842f814ecd19:active , .u50f18d97fc25e217ea00842f814ecd19:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u50f18d97fc25e217ea00842f814ecd19 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u50f18d97fc25e217ea00842f814ecd19 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u50f18d97fc25e217ea00842f814ecd19 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u50f18d97fc25e217ea00842f814ecd19 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u50f18d97fc25e217ea00842f814ecd19:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u50f18d97fc25e217ea00842f814ecd19 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u50f18d97fc25e217ea00842f814ecd19 .u50f18d97fc25e217ea00842f814ecd19-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u50f18d97fc25e217ea00842f814ecd19:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Sexual Harassment Essay The Taoist is told to use the light that is inside to revert to the natural clearness of sight. By divesting oneself of all external .